Task 25: Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems
22 – 26 May 2000 – Zagreb, Croatia
Jointly organized by
“Hrvoje Pozar” Ltd.
Ulica grada Vukovara 37
HR-10000 Zagreb, CROATIA
A-8010 Graz, AUSTRIA
IEA Bioenergy is an international, collaborative research programme on Bioenergy. The primary goal of IEA Bioenergy Task 25 (“Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems”) is to investigate all processes involved in the use of bioenergy systems, on a full fuel-cycle basis, with the aim of assessing overall greenhouse gas balances. Participating countries are Australia, Austria, Canada, Croatia, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the USA.
The Task 25 workshop in Zagreb, Croatia, is part of a series of workshops within Task 25 taking place on a regular basis.
Carbon/greenhouse gas models for bioenergy, forestry, wood products, land-use and land-use change have been, or are being, developed by participating countries. 4 models were presented in detail, with time allowed for participants to use the models. The following models were presented at the workshop.
CO2FIX is a tool which quantifies the C stocks and fluxes in the forest (whole tree), soil organic matter compartment and the resulting wood products. It was originally designed for even aged monospecies stands in the Netherlands (Mohren and Klein Goldewijk 1990a), but has also been used for a wide variety of (mostly even aged) forest types from all over the world, including some selective logging systems (Nabuurs and Mohren 1993). The latter results have been used in the IPCC 1995 climate change assessment (Brown et al. 1996).
Compared to the previous version of CO2FIX which was documented in Mohren and Klein Goldewijk (1990b), the present version
The current version is under further development in an EU funded project, “Carbon sequestration in afforestation and sustainable forest management: presentation of a general evaluation tool and generic case studies, CASFOR”.
GORCAM is an Excel spreadsheet model that has been developed to calculate the net fluxes of carbon to and from the atmosphere associated with land use, land-use change, bioenergy and forestry projects. The model considers:
The model makes use of approximately 200 input parameters. For each scenario a new set of input parameters can be defined. They describe the management regime (harvest cycle, growth rate etc.), the land use before the project, and the way in which the biomass is used for carbon mitigation. Various biomass growth functions are availabe (including Richards function, possibility of precommercial thinning, and selective logging). The soil and litter carbon uptake or release can either be prescribed with exogenous assumptions or a dynamic calculation scheme can be used.
The model can be used to assess the future carbon balance for scenarios involving:
The model output is presented in diagrams with cumulative carbon sequestration in various carbon pools over time. The model also allows to view the individual carbon fluxes. In addition to the regular model output, another mode is available where future carbon fluxes are discounted to give a net present value. The higher the discount rate and the longer the time horizon, the more the results will differ from the basic output.
GORCAM is implemented in MS Excel 5.0, and makes use of Visual Basic Macro Programming. Each scenario can be saved as an Excel file, that still carries with it all the model features, including macros, diagrams and equations. GORCAM allows the performance of sensitivity analyses, whereby the impact on any model output of varying an input parameter can be assessed. In combination with Excel-compatible risk analysis tools such as Crystal Ball or @Risk, Monte Carlo Analyses can be carried out to determine the uncertainty of the model results. Probability distributions can be defined or chosen for all input parameters, and the model derives the probability distribution for any model output, for example, the carbon sequestration of a given project after 20 years.
The model ERGO has been developed for estimating energy and emissions budgets of bioenergy systems. ERGO was originally developed in the early 1990’s with the primary aim of estimating energy and carbon budgets of bioenergy production from short rotation coppice tree systems. An important secondary objective was to provide a tool that could be used to compare different systems of bioenergy production directly, consistently and fairly. To achieve this ERGO needed to meet three important criteria, specifically the methods of energy and carbon budget estimation needed to be:
ERGO’s role in providing fundamental calculations of energy and emissions budgets of bioenergy systems may be viewed as underpinning GORCAM’s policy-level projections of carbon sequestration potential and greenhouse gas balance impacts. Currently the estimation of greenhouse gas balances in ERGO is limited to the carbon balance, but extension of the model to represent other gases is straightforward.
GEMIS (Global Emission Model for Integrated Systems) is a computerized life-cycle analysis model, LCA database, and cost-emission analysis system. It offers environmental and cost data for energy, material, and transport systems, including their life-cycles. The environmental data cover air emissions, greenhouse gases, liquid effluents, solid wastes, and land-use. The cost data concern investment, fixed annual, and variable cost, as well as externality factors for air emissions, and GHG. Further data are stored for “meta” information: comments and description, references, data quality indicators, location and statistical group.
GEMIS determines full life-cycle impacts of energy, transport, and material technologies. In addition to the totals, GEMIS also gives the individual contributions of all processes to a calculated result (breakdown ), and can determine results for selected system boundaries (e.g. a special location, in- or exclusion of material acquisition, crediting).
GEMIS evaluates deviations from multiple objectives (trade-offs), e.g., costs vs. emissions, or emissions vs. land use. It further calculates CO2 and SO2 equivalents, and the total resource use (cumulative energy and material demands). Because of the modular approach of the database (“unit” processes), the sensitivity of any result can be determined quickly by copying original data, and adjusting key parameters – within seconds, GEMIS then calculates the new results which can be compared immediately with the original data.
The software is public domain (i.e., free of charge), and updated regularly. More information can be found on the GEMIS websites [http://www.oeko.de/service/gemis (in German), http://www.oeko.de/service/temis and http://www.oeko.de/service/em].
A full-day study tour was undertaken to visit wood industry ITC in Varadin. The company has an advanced system of wood waste use, which includes a modern heating plant and mill for briquettes. The company is also known because of children toys and furniture production. Two other interesting visits were made – Veliki Tabor and Trakoscan castles, which are close to the study tour route.
MONDAY, 22 MAY 2000
European Forest Institute, Joensuu, Finland
Carbon Assessment Model for Forests (CAMFor)
Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
TUESDAY, 23 MAY 2000
Carbon Assessment Model for Forests (CAMFor) continued
European Forest Institute, Joensuu, Finland
GORCAM (Graz Oak Ridge Carbon Accounting Model)
Joanneum Research, Graz, Austria
Modelling the effect of thinning and pest control on the carbon balance of a stand
Domtar Inc, Ottawa, Canada
WEDNESDAY, 24 MAY 2000
THURSDAY, 25 MAY 2000
Forest Research (Forestry Commission Research Agency) Farnham, United Kingdom
GEMIS and the database of bioenergy systems in Austria
Joanneum Research, Graz, Austria
FRIDAY, 26 MAY 2000
GEMIS and the database of bioenergy systems in Austria continued
Progress with FLAMES and CASC: a market oriented approach to carbon cycle management through sequestration and biofuel
Massey University, New Zealand
IEA Bioenergy Task 25 – Administrative Matters
1. Task participation; Task continuation beyond 2000
2. Task 25 website
4. Posters and transparencies
5. IPCC issues
6. Possible proceedings of modelling workshop
7. Woody Biomass as an Energy Source Conference (25 – 28 Sept 2000, Joensuu, Finland)
8. Miscellaneous items
|BRADLEY, Doug||Domtar Inc.||700-1600 Scott Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4N7, CANADA||+1 613 725 5 6859||+1 613 725 email@example.com|
|BRACK, Cristopher||Dept. of Forestry, Australian National University||Canberra, ACT 0200, AUSTRALIA||+61 26249 3535||+61 26249 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|CANELLA, Lorenza||Joanneum Research||Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010-Graz, AUSTRIA||+43 316 876 1341||+43 316 876 email@example.com|
|DOMAC, Julije||Energy Institute “Hrovje Pozar”||Ulica Grada Vukovara 37, 10000 Zagreb, CROATIA||+385 1 6322 848||+385 1 6118 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|FIJAN-PARLOV, Snjezana||EKONERG||Ulica grada Vukivara 37, HR-1000, Zagreb, CROATIA||+385 1 6322 email@example.com|
|GARCIA QUIJANO, Juan F.||Laboratory of Forest, Nature and Landscape||Vital Decosterstraat 102, 3000 Leuven, BELGIUM||+32 1 6329 770||+32 16 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|JÄKEL, Ulrich||Joanneum Research||Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010-Graz, AUSTRIA||+43 316 876 1423||+43 316 876 email@example.com|
|JELAVIC, Vladimir||EKONERG||Ulica grada Vukivara 37, HR-1000, Zagreb, CROATIA||+385 1 6115 189||+385 1530 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|JUNGMEIER, Gerfried||Joanneum Research||Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010-Graz, AUSTRIA||+43 316 876 1313||+43 316 876 email@example.com|
|KARLSSON, Asa||Environmental and energy systems studies, Lund University||Gerdagatan 13, SE-223 62 Lund, SWEDEN||+46 46 222 4833||+46 46 222 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|MATTHEWS, Robert||Forestry Commission Research Agency||Alice Holt Lodge, Wrecclesham, Farnham Surrey, GU10 4LH,UNITED KINGDOM||+44 1420 526 235||+44 1420 email@example.com|
|MESIC, Milan||University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture||Department of General Agronomy, Svetosimunska 25, Zagreb, CROATIA||+385 1 23 93 956||+385 1 23 93 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|NIKOLAOU, Natassa||Center for Renewable Energy Sources||19 Marathanas Ave, Pikermi, GREECE||+30 1603 9900||+30 1603 email@example.com|
|PINGOUD Kim||VTT Energy||P.O.Box 1606, Espoo, 02044 VTT, FINLAND||+358 9 456 5074||+358 9 456 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|PUSSINEN, Ari||European Forest Institute||Torikatu 34, FIN-80100 Joensuu, FINLAND||+358 13 252 0241||+358 13 124 email@example.com|
|READ, Peter||Massey University||Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, NEW ZEALAND||+64 6355 9194||+64 6350 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|ROBERTSON, Kimberly||Joanneum Research and Forest Research (NZ)||Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010-Graz, AUSTRIA||+43 316 876 1330||+43 316 876 email@example.com|
|ROBEK, Robert||Slovenian Forestry Institute||Venca Pot 2 1000 Ljubljana, SLOVENIA||+386 1 200 7800||+386 1 257 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|SCHLAMADINGER, Bernhard||JOANNEUM RESEARCH||Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010-Graz, AUSTRIA||+43 316 876 1340||+43 316 876 1320||bernhard.schlamadinger@ joanneum.at|
|WAUPOTITSCH, Michael||JOANNEUM RESEARCH||Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010-Graz, AUSTRIA||+43 316 876 email@example.com|
|WEST, Tris||Oak Ridge National Laboratory||P.O. Box 2008, MS 6335, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6335 USA||+1 865 574 7322||+1 865 574 firstname.lastname@example.org|