Climate Change Effects of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems

Nokia, Finland 1998

Between COP3 And COP4: The Role Of Bioenergy In Achieving The Targets Stipulated In The Kyoto Protocol

Task 25: Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems

8-11 September 1998 – Spa Hotel Rantasipi Eden
Nokia, Finland

Jointly organized by

VTT Energy
P.O. Box 1606
FIN-02044 VTT (Espoo), FINLAND
Elisabethstrasse 5
A-8010 Graz, AUSTRIA

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Scope Of The Workshop

The primary goal of IEA Bioenergy Task 25 (“Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems”) is to investigate all processes involved in the use of bioenergy systems, on a full fuel-cycle basis, with the aim of establishing overall greenhouse gas balances.

The Task 25 workshop in Nokia, Finland, is part of a series of workshops taking place within Task 25 and the predecessing Task XV every 6 to 12 months. For more detailed information on the Task, and on previous workshops, see the other contents of this site.

Altogether, six events will take place during this workshop, some of them jointly with IEA Bioenergy Task 18 (“Conventional Forestry Systems for Bioenergy”):

  1. Excursion I (organized by Task 18):
    Topics covered: Recovery of logging residue from spruce dominated clearcut; Effects of residue removal on forest regeneration; Visit of the wood-fired Forssa CHP plant; Combustion of wet sawmill residues at the Humppila sawmill; Demonstration of small-scale heating entrepreneurship, including a visit to a chip-fired heating unit at Huittinen primary school
    (Tue 8 Sept, all day, starts and ends at hotel)
  2. Discussion of administrative matters regarding Task 25
    (Wed 9 Sept, half-day morning session, open for Task 25 participants only)
  3. Joint session with Task 18 on “Carbon Balances and Sequestration in Conventional Forestry (Biomass) Systems”
    Objectives of the joint session:
    1. Review research findings from key ecosystems on the effects of land-use change and convention al forestry on:
    (i) soil carbon sequestration/balances; (ii) above-  and below-ground partitioning of carbon
    2. Review “common analytical framework” for the assessment of GHG balances in forestry, and identify opportunities for research collaboration in modelling ecosystem carbon balances resulting from land-use change and alternative forest management.
    3. Evaluate the role of conventional forestry biomass production systems for positive contributions to reducing net GHG emissions or enhancing GHG sinks.
    (Wed 9 Sept, half-day afternoon session, open to all)
  4. All-day open session on the workshop topic, aimed at providing some new input/insights for the elaboration of the IEA Bioenergy position paper (see below).
    (Thu 10 Sept, open to all)
  5. Formulation of an IEA Bioenergy position paper on the role of bioenergy in the light of the Kyoto Protocol and the upcoming 4th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP4)
    (Fri 11 Sept, for IEA Bioenergy participants only)
  6. Excursion II (organized by Task 18):
    Topics covered: Spreading of wood ash and pulpmill sludge in forest (host: Ossi Sippola, Metsä-Serla Oy, Tampere) and Centralized handling and chipping of logging residue on a peat harvesting area (host: Tero Vesisenaho, Vapo Oy, Jyväskylä)
    (Fri 11 Sept, all day, starts at hotel and ends at 16:30 hrs at Helsinki airport)


Workshop Program


Excursion I


IEA Bioenergy Task 25 – Administrative Matters

  1. Task participation issues
  2. Special Issue Environmental Science and Policy (Rotorua proceedings, 2nd stage)
  3. Baselines paper (Oak Ridge meeting)
  4. IEA Bioenergy position paper (organizational aspects)
  5. Feedback on the new Task 25 WWW Homepage
  6. Finalization of the Task 25 Folder
  7. Special Task 25 section in Annual Report 1998
  8. Bibliography (updated version)
  9. 9. IPCC involvement (e.g. Special report on land-use change and forestry; Third Assessment Report)
  10. Next workshop
  11. Miscellaneous items

Joint Session with IEA Bioenergy Task 18 on

J. Richardson and J. Spitzer

Site preparation techniques in energy and fiber plantations to sequester carbon
M. Buford and B. J. Stokes (USDA Forest Service/USA)

Framework for assessing the contribution of soil carbon to New Zealand CO2 emissions
C. T. Smith*, J. Ford-Robertson*, K. R. Tate, and N. A. Scott (* New Zealand Forest Research Institute Limited/New Zealand)

Towards future European forest carbon budget (LTEEF-II project)
A. Pussinen*, T. Karjalainen*, J. Liski*, and G.-J. Nabuurs** (* European  Forest Institute/Finland, ** Institute for Forestry and Nature Research – ibn-dno/The Netherlands)

Long-term effects of whole-tree harvesting on carbon pools in coniferous forest soils
B. Olsson (Swedish Agricultural University/Sweden)

Whole-tree harvesting as a means to avoid nitrogen over-loading in forest ecosystems
H. Eriksson, J. Vinterbaeck, M. Parikka, and B. Hektor (Swedish Agricultural University/Sweden)

Forestry, climate change and carbon in soils
J. Liski (European Forest Institute/Finland)

The role of forest growth models in assessments of carbon balance and environmental impact of fibre and bioenergy production systems
R. Matthews (Forestry Commission Research Agency/UK)

Discussion of future directions for Task 18 and Task 25 collaboration



The Finnish forestry in light of Kyoto Protocol
H. Granholm (Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry/Finland)

GHG emissions and possibilities for reduction using fuelwood and forest waste for energy in Croatia
V. Jelavic* and J. Domac** (* EKONERG Holding/Croatia; ** Energy Institute “Hrvoje Pozar”/Croatia)

Role of forestry and biomass production for energy in reducing net GHG emissions in Finland – assessment concerning the history and future
I. Savolainen*, T. Karjalainen**, K. Pingoud*, and J. Liski** (* VTT/Finland; ** European Forest Institute/Finland)

Fuelwood in Europe for Environment and Development Strategies (FEEDS)
P. Ballaire (Ademe/France)

Application of the Unified Wood Energy Terminology (UWET) for the collection,  compilation and presentation of wood fuel data and
FAO Task Force on Dendroenergy and CO2 Substitution and Sequestration
M. Trossero (FAO Forestry Department/Italy)

Large-scale power generation using forestry and wood industry by-products
J. Ford-Robertson (New Zealand Forest Research Institute Limited/New Zealand)

Forestry strategies – temporary or permanent solution in carbon mitigation
P. Kauppi (Helsinki University/Finland)

Bioenergy and power production; power company’s perspective
A. Heikkinen (IVO Power Company/Finland)

Global land-use and land-use change with respect to future bioenergy scenarios
D. O. Hall or T. Johansson (yet to be confirmed, title tentative)

Project-based greenhouse gas accounting: guiding principles with focus on baselines
L. Gustavsson (Lund University/Sweden)

The role of biomass in greenhouse gas mitigation (IEA Bioenergy draft position paper)
J. Spitzer (Joanneum Research/Austria)

FRIDAY, 11 September 1998

Excursion II

Task 25 session:

Elaboration of an IEA Bioenergy position paper on the role of  bioenergy in the light of the targets set in the Kyoto Protocol and the upcoming 4th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, Buenos Aires, 2-13 November 1998 (basis: draft position paper).


List of Participants

Name Institution Address Phone Fax e-mail
Andrasko, Kenneth USEPA, Office of Policy 401 M Street, SW, Washington D.C., 20460, USA +1 202 260 4497 +1 202 260 6405 andrasko.ken@
Ballaire, Pierre ADEME BP 406, F-49004 Anger Cedex 01, FRANCE +33 2 4120 4152 +33 2 4120 4200 pierre.ballaire@
Bradley, Doug E.B. Eddy Forest Products 700-1600 Scott St., Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y 4N7 CANADA +1 613 725 6854 +1 613 725 6820 dbradley@
Domac, Julije Energy Institute “Hrvoje Pozar” Ulica grada Vukovara 37, HR-10000 Zagreb, CROATIA +385 1 612 5848 +385 1 611 8401 julije.domac@
Eriksson, Hillevi Dept. of Forest Soils, SLU Box 7001, S-750 07 Uppsala, SWEDEN +46 18 672 233 +46 18 673 470 hillevi.eriksson@
Ford-Robertson, Justin New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd. Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, NEW ZEALAND +64 7 347 5661 +64 7 347 5332 robertsj@
Granholm, Heikki* Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Forestry P.O.Box 232, FIN-00171, FINLAND +358 9 160 2431 +358 9 160 2400 heikki.granholm@
Gustavsson, Leif Lund University, Institute of Technology, Environmental and Energy Systems Studies (EESS) Lund Gerdag. 13, SE-223 62 Lund, SWEDEN +46 46 222 8641 +46 46 222 8644 leif.gustavsson@
Heikkinen, Arto Imatran Voima Oy (IVO), Environmental Protection Division FIN-01019 Ivo, FINLAND +358 9 8561 4554 +358 9 566 8151 arto.heikkinen@
Heikinheimo, Pirkko Ministry of the Environment POB 399, FIN-00121 Helsinki, FINLAND +358 9 1991 9692 +358 9 1991 9716 pirkko.heikinheimo@
Karlsson, Asa Lund University, Institute of Technology, Environmental and Energy Systems Studies (EESS) Lund Gerdag 13, SE-223 62 Lund, SWEDEN +46 46 222 48 33 +46 46 222 86 44 asa.karlsson@
Kauppi, Pekka University of Helsinki P.O. Box 27, Fin-00014, Univ. of Helsinki, FINLAND +358 9 708 5300 +358 9 708 5462 pekka.kauppi@
Liski, Jari European Forest Institute, Dept. of Forest Ecology P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FINLAND +358 9 191 7725 +358 9 191 7605 jari.liski@
Lundborg, Anna Swedish National Energy Administration Box 310, S-63104 Eskilstuna, SWEDEN +46 16 544 2000 anna.lundborg@
Madlener, Reinhard JOANNEUM RESEARCH Elisabethstrasse 5, A-8010 Grazm, AUSTRIA +43 316 876 1340 +43 316 876 1320 reinhard.madlener@
Matthews, Robert Forest Research (Forestry Commission Research Agency), Mensuration Branch Alice Holt Lodge, Wrecclesham, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH, UK +44 1420 526 235 +44 1420 234 50 r.matthews@
Pingoud, Kim VTT Energy P.O.Box 1606, FIN-02044 VTT, FINLAND +358 9 456 5074 +358 9 456 6538 kim.pingoud@
Pussinen, Ari European Forest Institute Torikiatu 34, FIN-80100 Joensuu, FINLAND +358 13 252 0241 +358 13 124 393 ari.pussinen@
Savolainen, Ilkka VTT Energy P.O. Box 1606, FIN-02044 VTT, FINLAND +358 9 456 5062 +358 9 456 6538 ilkka.savolainen@
Schlamadinger, Bernhard JOANNEUM RESEARCH Elisabethstrasse 5, A-8010 Graz, AUSTRIA +43 316 876 1340 +43 316 876 1320 bernhard. schlamadinger@
Schoene, Dieter Rheinland-Pfalz Forest Service Ackerpfad 5, D-54518 Altrich, GERMANY +49 6571 29 611 +49 6571 29 611 0657129611-0001@
Spitzer, Josef JOANNEUM RESEARCH Elisabethstrasse 5, A-8010 Graz, AUSTRIA +43 316 876 1332 +43 316 876 1320 josef.spitzer@
Trossero, Miguel FAO Forestry Department Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, I-00100 Rome, ITALY +3906 5705 4175 +3906 5705 3152 miguel.trossero@
Tuhkanen, Sami VTT Energy PO Box 1606, FIN-02044 VTT, FINLAND +358 9 456 5065 +358 9 456 6538 sami.tuhkanen@



Workshop Proceedings

Proceedings of the Workshop
Between COP3 and COP4: The Role of Bioenergy in Achieving the Targets Stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol
R. Madlener and K. Pingoud (eds.)

Using biomass to improve site quality and  carbon sequestration

M.A. Buford, B.J. Stokes, F.G. Sanchez and E.A. Carter

The future demands on forest lands are a concern because of reduced productivity, especially on inherently poor sites, sites with long-depleted soils, or those soils that bear repeated, intensive short rotations. Forest are also an important carbon sink, and when well managed, can make even more significant contributions to sequestration and to reduction of  green house gases. This paper looks at the use of forest biomass as a carbon sink and as a source of nutrients for enhancing or restoring site productivity. An hypothesis that wood incorporated into the soil will store carbon for an unknown length of time and an example  analysis using logging residues is presented. An overview of a field study conducted to evaluate the use of mulching and tilling as a site preparation tool for incorporating biomass into the soil is also presented.

Framework for assessing the contribution of soil carbon to New Zealand CO2 emissions.

C.T. Smith, J. Ford-Robertson, K.R. Tate, N.A. Scott

Soils contain the largest amount of carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere, so changes in soil C resulting from land management must be considered in estimating national C balances. New Zealand has developed a framework for estimating the 1990 soil C baseline for three soil depths (0-0.1 m, 0.1-0.3 m, 0.3-1.0 m) and future changes in soil C based on the premise  that (1) IPCC soil groups, (2) climate groupings based on USDA Soil Taxonomy soil moisture and soil temperature regimes, and (3) land use are the major factors determining the C content  of New Zealand soils. These three factors were the basis for deriving 166 cells from a matrix  of the key 18 Soil/Climate Groups and 11 Land Use Classes, minus cells that were not found in New Zealand, which were condensed down to 39 “key” cells, which contribute significantly to the soil C content of New Zealand. The soil programme is linked to efforts  to determine C in indigenous forests and scrub. For each of three soil depths, each cell is currently represented by varying numbers of sample points, based on historical data and new field samples. Current data in the system being developed provides an estimate of baseline soil C for New Zealand, some preliminary information on the amount of soil C under different  land-uses, and provides us with an opportunity to conduct a preliminary assessment of methodologies for periodically updating New Zealand national soil C levels, and their  propensity to change. We believe that a system for periodically updating national soil C should consider: use of ‘modal soil pedon’ to increase the efficiency of field sampling to estimate soil C contents of specific combinations of soil-climate-land use; number and  classification of key soil groups essential to efficiently and precisely estimate national  soil C contents; accuracy of ‘coefficients of change’ estimated from sample points lacking experimental control between land uses; gaps and linkages in estimates of below- and  above-ground components of total ecosystem C; number of benchmark, long-term ecological study sites required for a national network representative of key soil-climate-land use  categories; and information system requirements of a national soil C monitoring system.

Towards future European forest carbon budget (LTEEF-II project)

A. Pussinen, T. Karjalainen, J. Liski and G.J. Nabuurs

LTEEF-II (Long-term Regional effects of Climate Change on European Forests: Impact assessment and Consequences for Carbon Budget) is EU funded project with 14 participants from 10 countries  and it started 1998 and will continue until 2000. The objective of the project is to assess climate change impacts on European forests, in terms of water and carbon fluxes, regional differences, long-term effects, and the overall carbon budget for forests in Europe.
The project consists of two component. The first is impact assessment at the stand level using process-based models. Different models are validated using field data and growth and  yield data. Regionally most reliable models are then used to predict the response of forest  to climate change scenarios.
The second component is upscaling to the European level using Large Scale Forestry Model (LSFM) and remote sensing. LSFM uses national level forest inventory data and simulates future development of European forests under climate scenarios. The output of LSFM include national harvest levels and carbon balance of forests. In this paper we concentrate on  upscailing with LSFM.

Long-term effects of whole-tree harvesting on  carbon pools in coniferous forest soils

B.A. Olsson

Results from Swedish field experiments and ecosystem modeling on the effects of whole-tree  harvesting on soil carbon pools are presented and discussed. Soil inventories on 8 field experiments where whole-tree harvesting were made at clear-felling or at thinnings give no support to the hypothesis that whole-tree harvesting leads to reductions in soil carbon  pools. Nor is there strong support from field experiments for the hypothesis that whole-tree harvesting reduces the litter production from the next forest generation or ground vegetation. A model of a spruce forest ecosystem predicted that harvesting of logging residues is likely to have a relatively small impact on soil carbon pools. Some research needs were identified.

Whole-tree harvesting – effects on the N budget of forest soils in Sweden

H.M. Eriksson, J. Vinterbäck,  M. Parikka and B. Hektor

Antropogenic N deposition causes a range of environmental problems when total N input largely exceed what can be used for tree growth or long-term immobilization in the soil in forest ecosystems. In case there is a soil N build-up, the potential for further immobilization will  decrease with time. Thus, if N deposition is constant, leaching losses will increase with time. Increasing N export from the ecosystem through intensified harvesting could be used as a means  to improve the N balancing, provided the exported N is transformed into less harmful forms by proper cleaning in the industrial processing.
In average the N budget would overbalance in the southern half of Sweden and underbalance in the northern half of Sweden if whole-tree harvesting is used in all thinnings and at clear-cutting. If stemwood harvesting is used, N deposition exceeds the critical load at  over 90 % of the forest area of Sweden. In case an N-budget-adapted harvest intensity would be applied, a balanced N budget could be reached on about 50 % of the forest area.

Forestry, climate change and carbon in soils

J. Liski

The soil of forests contains more carbon than the vegetation. For this reason, even small changes in the soil C storage significantly affect the C balance of forests.
The C balance of soil depends on the rates litter production and decomposition. These  processes determine respectively C input to soil and output from soil. Forest management actions, such as harvesting, soil preparation, regeneration and fertilization, affect both these processes and may thus either increase or decrease the soil C storage. Similarly,  climatic changes affect both litter production and decomposition. The consequent change  in the soil C storage depends on how these processes change relative to each other.
The changes in the soil C storage in response to forest management and climatic changes are  not reliably known especially due to difficulties in measuring soil C. The changes in the soil C storage during years and decades are expected to be proportionally small, maybe some  ten percent. On the other hand, the spatial variation in the amount of soil C is large at any  forest site; the amount commonly varies 3-5 fold even within a few meters. It is thus very  difficult, if not impossible, to detect the temporal changes in the soil C storage by repeated  measurements. In models, soil C is divided for several pools having different dynamic properties.  This division thus determines how the models predict the dynamics of soil C. These pools cannot,  however, be measured separately. This adds uncertainty in the model predictions. Furthermore, the response to environmental changes is only known for the pools changing most quickly which  represent only a few percent of the whole soil C storage. It is common to assume that this  response is similar for the rest of the soil C storage too, although this is not necessarily the case.
It seems that our knowledge on the changes in the soil C storage would be most efficiently improved by developing soil C measurements and collecting more data on soil C. However, it seems necessary to develop and commonly accept other means for detecting the changes in the soil C storage than direct measurements before soil can be accounted for like vegetation in the considerations of the C balance of forests.

Role of forestry and biomass production for  energy in reducing the net GHG emissions in Finland.
Assessment concerning the history and future

I. Savolainen, A. Lehtilä, J. Liski, K. Pingoud

The carbon reservoir of the trees and surface vegetation of the Finnish forest ecosystem is about 700 Tg C. The carbon reservoir of the wood products in use originated from Finnish forests is estimated to be about 5 % of the carbon reservoir of this total tree biomass.  Currently the growth of the managed forests in Finland is greater than the cuttings, causing  a carbon sink, a net accumulation of about 14 million tons of CO2 in the forest ecosystem.  This considerable carbon sink in the existing forests is not, however, accounted by the Kyoto  Protocol, as it limits the consideration to afforestation and reforestation only. The use of  bioenergy has been always important in Finland, presently the share of bioenergy of the total  primary energy consumption is about 17 %. Increased use of bioenergy and energy conservation  are likely to be the main options in controlling the greenhouse gas emissions before 2010. The real development will probably consists of many other factors as well, like a strong increase of the use of natural gas, overall improvement of the efficiency of energy production and to  some minor extent of increased use of wind energy.

Greenhouse gases emissions and possibilities for reduction using biomass for energy in Croatia

V. Jelavic, J. Domac, Z. Juric

Combustion of fossil fuels is the main cause for the build-up of the CO2 in the earth’s atmosphere. Additional emissions come from changes in land use, mainly deforestation.
This paper deals with evaluation of bioenergy systems contribution in fulfilling obligations from Kyoto for Croatia. Emissions are calculated for various biomass energy scenarios in  Croatia to the year 2030. These results are a part of analysis carried out within BIOEN Program  activities and work on recently published document “The Energy Strategy of the Republic of Croatia”.
The given results indicate that bioenergy systems have significant, so far not fully exploited, yet limited possibilities to reduce GHG emissions and help achieving Kyoto targets.

Fuelwood in Europe for Environment and Development Strategies (FEEDS): an overview

C. Barbier and H. Schwaiger

In this 2020 prospective study, a methodology has been developed for analysis of the  possibilities of increasing the use of fuelwood, and the socio-economic and environmental implications of the kind of mobilization which would result therefrom. The study deals with  five countries within the European Community: Austria, Finland, France, Portugal and Sweden.
The fuelwood share of the energy supply in these five countries could be increased to 9% by  the year 2020 if a scenario with an interventionist policy of fuelwood use is assumed in potential user sectors. This could be compared to the present fuelwood share of 5%. There are, however, large differences amongst the five countries. The increased fuelwood use could reduce carbon  dioxide emissions by 7% for the year 2020, compared to the present level. The study shows that  fuelwood is an economically competitive fuel for energy production in many user sectors. There  are, however, a number of non-technical-economic factors (institutional, sociological,  political…) which may stand in the way of an increased fuelwood use.
The method of analysing the possibilities for – and consequences of – an increased use of  biomass which has been developed in this project could be used for similar analyses of other groups of countries in the European Union.

A Unified Wood Energy Terminology (UWET)

M.A. Trossero

The aim of this paper is to examine and review the currently used terminology and definitions for woodfuels and other biofuels in the data bank dedicated to the collection and compilation  of bioenergy statistical data and present some suggestions for improving this information in the future. For obvious reasons, the paper is mainly focused on the woodfuel statistics compiled by FAO in the current FAOSTAT and reproduced in the Forest Products Yearbook. However, many of the issues of the Unified Wood Energy Terminology (UWET) suggested in this paper for improving the current FAO information system on biofuels would also apply to other data banks of other international and national organizations and agencies involved in similar fields.

FAO and climate change

M.A. Trossero

The mandate of FAO touches on a number of areas which are of direct relevance to the current  international climate discussions such as: the assessment of land-use, land-use changes and  forestry sources of green-house gases; the formulation of programmes and policies which can reduce the emissions and assist countries in complying with their commitments under the UNFCCC  and the Kyoto Protocol; and the collection and maintenance of relevant datasets, through agricultural statistics and dedicated observation systems such as FRA (Forest Resources  Assessment) and GTOS (Global Terrestrial Observation System).
The Organization can play, among others, a useful role in the definition of typologies of  agricultural and forestry sources; the formulation of the appropriate agricultural statistical  methods that will enable the Conference of Parties to verify the compliance with commitments  and the relevance and effectiveness of projects implemented under the “flexibilisation mechanisms”; the standardisation of observation techniques  and data exchange; and the formulation of regional and national policies.
Finally, it is suggested that the Inter-Agency Committee on the Climate Agenda, which was  specifically set up by several UN agencies to harmonise their climate related programmes, should be resorted to ensure that the inputs by several Agencies, and their relations with  countries under the UNFCCC, are properly co-ordinated.

Bioenergy and power production; power  company’s perspective

A. Heikkinen

In this presentation, the current situation of the Finnish electricity market have been shortly discussed. The main dynamics are currently the deregulation of the markets and  the adaptation to the commintments of the Kyoto protocol. Also, some aspects of Imatran  Voima Oy’s (IVO) relation to the bioenergy have been described.

Potential impact of forestry initiatives on  Canada’s carbon balances

Discussion paper of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association
Presentation given by D. Bradley

The Canadian Pulp and Paper Association has prepared a report which describes several carbon-sequestering forestry initiatives and gives estimates of their potential impact on  Canada’s carbon balance, using available data from empirical studies and current scientific thinking. The report is being presented as a discussion paper initially, to encourage discussion on the concepts and calculations. The C.P.P.A. intends to follow with a position paper, containing refined numerical estimates and also recommendations.

The role of bioenergy in greenhouse gas mitigation

A position paper prepared by IEA Bioenergy Task 25
Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems”;
Presentation given by J. Spitzer

Biomass can play a dual role in greenhouse gas mitigation related to the objectives of the  UNFCCC, i.e. as an energy source to substitute for fossil fuels and as a carbon store. However, compared to the maintenance and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs, it appears that the use of bioenergy has so far received less attention as a means of mitigating  climate change. Modern bioenergy options offer significant, cost-effective and perpetual opportunities toward meeting emission reduction targets while providing additional ancillary  benefits. Moreover, via the sustainable use of the accumulated carbon, bioenergy has the  potential for resolving some of the critical issues surrounding long-term maintenance of biotic carbon stocks. Finally, wood products can act as substitutes for more energy-intensive products, can constitute carbon sinks, and can be used as biofuels at the end of their lifetime.